Spanish Cuisine in Mexico's Food Tradition
Spain's cuisine is a Mediterranean-influenced cuisine that includes a variety of staples like olive oil and rice. These staples were introduced to Mexico by Spanish settlers, though some of them were imported later, such as wine, brandy and nuts, olives. They introduced domesticated animals such as cows, sheep, goats, chickens, cows, and chickens to the region. This increased protein intake. The most important dairy product was cheese. Cheese was brought to Mexico by the Spanish. They also brought rice and sugar cane. This allowed for extensive creation of many sweets, including syrups made from local fruits. Alfenique, a sugar-based candy craft, was brought to Mexico and used today for the Day of the Dead. Incorporating native ingredients and cooking techniques with ingredients such as olive oil, rice (oregano), garlic, onions, ginger, coriander, cinnamon and cloves has become a common practice over time. Convents were a key venue for mixing the two cuisines.
Despite Spanish influence, Mexican cuisine still relies on corn, beans, and chili peppers. The natives remained dependent on maize. It was cheaper than the wheat that European settlers preferred, was easier to cultivate, and yielded higher yields. The establishment of wheat farms made it easier for Europeans to control the land. Mexico City was home to wheat in the 18th century. However, only two bakers were permitted to make this bread. They worked for the viceroy and archbishop on consignment. For the wealthy "Creoles", large ring loaves made of the choice flour pan floreado were readily available. Pan comun, cemita and pambazo are just a few examples of other bread styles that were made with lower-quality maize and wheat. Ilarione da Bergamo (an Italian Capuchin friar) included descriptions of food in his travelogue during the eighteenth-century. He observed that tortillas were not only eaten by the poor but also by the upper classes.
Lunch was pork products such as chorizo or ham served between tortillas with a spicy red chili sauce. Drink pulque was also available, along with corn-based atole. For those who could afford it, chocolate-based drinks were drank twice daily. De Bergamo claims that neither wine nor coffee are consumed. Evening meals were ended with small portions of beans in thick soups, which "served as a stage for water." Mexico saw an influx of immigrants during the 19th century. These included French, Lebanese and German, Chinese, Chinese, and Italians.
The French intervention in Mexico made French food popular among the upper classes. Tudor, the Emperor Maximilian from Habsburg's guest in Mexico, was a major influence on these trends. This is evident in the wide variety of sweet and breads that Mexican bakeries offer, including conchas, bolillos and many others. Germans introduced beer-brewing techniques, while the Chinese brought their own cuisine to specific areas of the country. Mexico's cuisine is now based more on its relationship to traditional cooking methods than it is to its culinary traditions.
There has been a lot of exchange between Mexico and the United States over the past 20 years. Although Mexican cuisine was still being practiced in the Southwest United States, it was largely abandoned after the Mexican-American War. Diana Kennedy's 1972 book The Cuisines of Mexico made a clear distinction between Mexican and Tex-Mex food. Tex-Mex was born from Mexican and Anglo influences and can be traced back to Texas in the late 19th century. It is still evolving with flour tortillas only becoming more popular north of the border in the second half of the 20th century. The influence of Mexico has been largely due to the rise of food industry and the increased availability of food overall, particularly after the Mexican Revolution.
Another sign of American influence is the rise of fast food, including pizza, hamburgers, and hot dogs. International influence has helped to develop haute cuisine in Mexico over the past 20 years. Many Mexican chefs have been trained in French and international cuisines, but many Mexicans still love to use Mexican ingredients and flavours, even the simple food from traditional markets. You will often see quesadillas and small tacos alongside other hors-d'oeuvres at fancy Mexican dinner parties. Mexican professional cookery is growing, with a strong emphasis on traditional techniques and ingredients. There is a growing interest in authentic Mexican food being published and preserved in the cities.
The Mexican Culinary Circle in Mexico City is the origin of this movement. This group was formed by women chefs and other culinary professionals in response to the loss of traditional foods and techniques. UNESCO designated Mexico's cuisine as an Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity in 2010. Mexico has adopted a Mexican fusion of various international cuisines in recent times. Sushi in Mexico, for example, is made with a variety sauces that are based on mangos and tamarind. It's often served with serranochili blended soybean sauce or with vinegar, habanero peppers and chipotle peppers.